Prof. Dr. med. Wolfgang Kromer
         Specialist in Pharmacology and Toxicology            Specialist in Clinical Pharmacology

Quoted in leading textbooks (Goodman & Gilman’s: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011, 2018; Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine 1994, 2000; Forth / Henschler / Rummel / Starke: Allgemeine und spezielle Pharmakologie und Toxikologie 1996, 2001; Freye: Opioide in der Medizin 2009; Brody / Larner / Minneman: Human Pharmacology. Molecular to Clinical 1998; Lewis: A Pharmacologic Approach to Gastrointestinal Disorders, 1994; Friedman / Jacobson / McCallum: Gastrointestinal Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 1997; and others)

Kromer, W., K.J. Freundt. Hemmung der oxidativen N-Demethylierung in vitro durch Schwefelkohlenstoff. Arzneim.-Forsch. 26, 189-194 (1976)

Kromer, W.  Die fortlaufende Registrierung der Muskeltemperatur während der Elektromyographie. Fortschr. Neurol. Psychiat. 44, 649-660 (1976)

Kromer, W., J. Bläsig, A. Westenthanner, I. Haarmann, H.J. Teschemacher. Characteristics of porcine pituitary peptides which act like opiates: Release from anterior lobes in vitro - relation between central effects and degradation by brain enzymes. In: Opiates and Endogenous Opioid Peptides (ed. H.W. Kosterlitz), Elsevier North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1976), pp 1-8

Teschemacher, H., J. Bläsig, W. Kromer. Porcine pituitary peptides with opiate-like activity: Partial purification and effects in the rat after intraventricular injection. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 294, 293-295(1976)

Kromer, W., C. Fischer, H. Teschemacher. Extracts of uterine tissue stimulate endorphin release from anterior pituitary in vitro. Neuroscience Letters 8, 259-263 (1978)

Kromer, W., H. Teschemacher. An opiate withdrawal-like phenomenon in the fetal guinea pig ileum upon naloxone challenge. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 49,  445-446 (1978)

Kromer, W., H. Teschemacher, C. Fischer, V. Höllt, R. Schulz, K.H. Voigt. Indication for a possible role of endorphins in pregnancy. In: Characteristics and Function of Opioids (eds. J.M. Van Ree,  L. Terenius). Elsevier North Holland Biomedical Press (1978), pp 281-282

Kromer, W. Endorphine - körpereigene Peptide mit Morphin-ähnlicher Wirkung. Nachweismethoden, strukturelle Merkmale, Vorkommen, Wirkungen. Fortschritte der Medizin 28, 1415-1423 (1978)

Kromer, W. Endorphine - körpereigene Peptide mit Morphin-ähnlicher Wirkung. Biologische Bedeutung, klinische Gesichtspunkte. Fortschritte der Medizin 29, 1463-1468 (1978)

Csontos, K., M. Rust, V. Höllt, W. Mahr, W. Kromer, H.J. Teschemacher. Elevated plasma ß-endorphin levels in pregnant women and their neonates. Life Sciences 25, 835-844 (1979)

Kromer, W., W. Pretzlaff. In vitro evidence for the participation of intestinal opioids in the control of peristalsis in the guinea pig small intestine. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 309, 153-157 (1979)

Teschemacher, H.J., K. Csontos, A. Westenthanner, V. Brantl, W. Kromer. Endogenous opioids: Cold-induced release from pituitary tissue in vitro; extraction from pituitary and milk. In: Endorphins in mental health research (eds. E.Usdin, W.E. Bunney jr., N.S. Kline), Oxford University Press, New York (1979), pp 203-208

Kromer, W. Naltrexone influence on hibernation. Experientia 36, 581-582 (1980)

Kromer, W., J.E. Dum. Mouse-killing in rats induces a naloxone-blockable increase in nociceptive threshold. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 63, 195-198 (1980)

Kromer, W., W. Pretzlaff, E. Scheiblhuber. In vitro evidence for an involvement of intestinal endorphins in the control of peristalsis in the guinea pig ileum. Comparison to rabbit, rat, cat and dog small intestine. In: Endogenous and exogenous opiate agonists and antagonists (ed. E.L. Way), Pergamon Press, NY (1980), pp 337-340

Kromer, W., W. Pretzlaff. Naloxone enhances peristalsis in the guinea pig small intestine in vitro. Influence on different parameters of peristalsis. In: Opiate receptors and the neurochemical correlates of pain (ed. S. Fürst), Pergamon Press, Akademiai Kiado, Budapest (1980), pp 129-132

Kromer, W., W. Pretzlaff, R. Woinoff. Opioids modulate periodicity rather than efficacy of peristaltic waves in the guinea pig ileum in vitro. Life Sciences 26, 1857-1865 (1980)

Kromer, W., E. Scheiblhuber, P. Illes. Functional antagonism by calcium of an intrinsic opioid mechanism in the guinea-pig isolated ileum. Neuropharmacology 19, 839-843 (1980)

Kromer, W., R. Woinoff. Peristalsis in the isolated guinea-pig ileum during opiate withdrawal. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 314, 191-193 (1980)

Kromer, W., W. Pretzlaff, R. Woinoff. Regional distribution of an opioid mechanism in the guinea-pig isolated intestine. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 33, 98-101 (1981)

Kromer, W., R. Woinoff. Dual action of somatostatin upon peristalsis in the guinea pig isolated ileum. Neuroendocrinology 33, 136-139 (1981)

Kromer, W., V. Höllt, H. Schmidt, A. Herz. Release of immunoreactive-dynorphin from the isolated guinea-pig small intestine is reduced during peristaltic activity. Neuroscience Letters 25, 53-56 (1981)

Kromer, W., H. Schmidt, V. Höllt. Intestinal opioids may modulate the action of acetylcholine on peristalsis in vitro. Release studies point to a possible role for dynorphin in the control of peristalsis. In: Advances in endogenous and exogenous opioids (eds. H. Takagi, E.J. Simon), Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo (1981), pp. 185-188

Kromer, W., N. Steigemann. Opiate tolerance/dependence in the isolated guinea pig ileum is associated with an increased sensitivity to acetylcholine. Pharmacology 25, 294-296 (1982)

Kromer, W., H. Schmidt. Opioids modulate intestinal peristalsis at a site of action additional to that modulating acetylcholine release. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 223, 271-274 (1982)

Kromer, W., N. Steigemann, G.T. Shearman. Differential effects of SKF 10,047 (N-allyl-normetazocine) on peristalsis and longitudinal muscle contractions of the isolated guinea pig ileum. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 321, 218-222 (1982)

Kromer, W., B. Skowronek, H. Stark, S. Netz. Modulation of acid secretion from enriched guinea pig parietal cells by opioid receptors. Pharmacology 27, 298-304, (1983)

Kromer, W., P. Schröder, S. Netz. Stereospecific inhibition by naloxone of histamine-stimulated acid secretion in isolated guinea pig parietal cells. Pharmacology 29, 320-328 (1984)

Beinborn, M., W. Kromer, U. Staar, K.-Fr. Sewing. Binding of 3H-Iloprost to rat gastric mucosa: a pitfall in performing radioligand binding assays. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology 49, 337-351 (1985)

Birdsall, N.J.M., C. Hulme, W. Kromer, S. Peck, M. Stockton, J. Zigmond. Two drug binding sites on muscarinic receptors. In: New concepts in Alzheimer's disease (eds. M. Briley, A. Kato, M. Weber) MacMillan Press LTD, London, (1986) pp. 104-121

Kromer, W. Medikamentöse Schmerzbehandlung. Pathophysiologische Grundlagen und Prinzipien. Fortschritte der Medizin 20, 401-404 (1986)

Kromer, W. Medikamentöse Schmerzbehandlung. Eigenschaften der zentral wirksamen Analgetika und Regeln für ihre Verschreibung. Fortschritte der Medizin 21, 427-430 (1986)

Kromer, W. Medikamentöse Schmerzbehandlung. Eigenschaften der peripher wirksamen Analgetika und Regeln für ihre Verschreibung. Fortschritte der Medizin 22, 448-450 (1986)

Kromer, W. Medikamentöse Schmerzbehandlung. Kopfschmerzen und Migräne, Arzneimittel-Wechselwirkungen, Kontraindikationen, Anwendung von Analgetika während Schwangerschaft und Laktation. Fortschritte der Medizin 41, 771-774 (1986)

Birdsall, N.J.M., C. Hulme, W. Kromer, M. Stockton, J. Zigmond. A second drug binding site on muscarinic receptors. Fed.Proc. 46, 2523-2535 (1987)

Bohnenkamp, W., M. Eltze, K. Heintze, W. Kromer, Ch. Schudt, R. Riedel. Specificity of the substituted benzimidazole B 823-08: A prodrug for gastric proton pump inhibition. Pharmacology 34, 269-278 (1987)

Riedel, R., W. Bohnenkamp, M. Eltze, K. Heintze, W. Prinz, W. Kromer. Comparison between the gastric antisecretory and antiulcer potencies of telenzepine, pirenzepine, ranitidine and cimetidine in the rat. Digestion 40, 25-32 (1988)

Kromer, W., S. Gönne. An acid-independent antiulcer effect of M1-antimuscarinics in the rat. In: M1-selective muscarinic antagonists in peptic ulcer therapy (eds. W. Kromer, E. Mutschler and K.-Fr.-Sewing) Pharmacology 37 (Suppl. 1), 48-53 (1988)

Kromer, W. Endogenous and exogenous opioids in the control of gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Pharmacological Reviews 40, 121-162 (1988)

Kromer, W., E. Baron, M. Beinborn, M. Eltze, W.A. Simon. Stimulation by McN-A-343 and blockade by telenzepine of acid secretion in the mouse isolated stomach at histamine-liberating cells. Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 340, 68-75 (1989)

Konturek, S.J., J. Tasler, M. Cieszkowski, K. Szewczyk, W. Kromer. Comparison of telenzepine, pirenzepine and atropine on gastric acid and pepsin secretion in response to histamine, pentagastrin, bethanechol, sham-feeding and feeding. Digestion 44, 66-78 (1989)

Kromer, W. The current status of opioid research on gastrointestinal motility. Minireview. Life Sci. 44, 579-589 (1989)

Kromer, W., E. Baron, M. Beinborn, R. Boer, M. Eltze. Characterization of the muscarine receptor type on paracrine cells activated by McN-A-343 in the mouse isolated stomach, Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 341, 165-170 (1990)

Kromer, W. Reflex peristalsis in the guinea pig isolated ileum is endogenously controlled by kappa opioid receptors. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 341, 450-454 (1990)

Kromer, W., S. Postius, R. Riedel, W.A. Simon, G. Hanauer, U. Brand, S. Gönne, M.E. Parsons. BY 1023/SK&F 96022 INN pantoprazole, a novel gastric proton pump inhibitor, potently inhibits acid secretion but lacks relevant cytochrome P450 interactions. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 254, 129-135 (1990)

Clauss, W., W. Kromer, H. Fischer. Chloride secretion in hen large intestine. In: Exocrine secretion II (eds. P.Y.D. Wong and J.A. Young), United League Graphics & Printing Ltd., Leura 1990, pp. 23-25

Kromer, W., S. Gönne, R. Riedel, S. Postius. Direct comparison between the ulcer-healing effects of two H+/K+-ATPase inhibitors, one M1-selective antimuscarinic and one H2-receptor antagonist in the rat. Pharmacology 41, 333-337 (1990)

Kromer, W., B. Kohl. Pantoprazole sodium. Drugs of the Future, 15/8, 801-804 (1990)

Kromer, W. Endogenous opioids, the enteric nervous system, and gut motility. Invited review. Digestive Diseases 8, 361-373 (1990)

Kromer, W., E. Baron, R. Boer, M. Eltze. Telenzepine inhibits electrically-stimulated acid secretion in the mouse isolated stomach by blockade of M1-receptors located on paracrine cells. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 343, 7-13 (1991)

Kromer, W. Voltage clamp experiments reveal receptor type-dependent modulation of chloride secretion in the guinea pig colonic mucosa by intestinal opioids. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 344, 360-367 (1991)

Fischer, H., W. Kromer, W. Clauss. Two types of chloride channels in hen colon epithelial cells identified by patch-clamp experiments. J. Comp. Physiol. B 161, 333-338 (1991)

Postius, S., U. Bräuer, W. Kromer. The novel proton pump inhibitor pantoprazole elevates intragastric pH for a prolonged period when administered under conditions of stimulated gastric acid secretion in the gastric fistula dog. Life Sci. 49, 1047-1052 (1991)

Kromer, W. Receptor classification using antagonists without determining pA2 values. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 12, 11-13 (1991)

Kromer, W. Regulation of intestinal motility by peripheral opioids. Facts and hypotheses. In: Neurobiology of opioids (eds. O.F.X. Almeida and T.S. Shippenberg) Springer Verlag, Berlin 1991, chapter 18, pp. 287-299

Kromer, W., M. Eltze. Is field (vagal) stimulation of gastric acid secretion mediated by M1 or non-M1 muscarine receptors? A methodical problem exemplified in the mouse stomach in vitro. J. Autonomic Pharmacol. 11, 337-342 (1991)

Schürer-Maly, C.-C., W. Kromer, B. Flogerzi, L. Varga, S. Postius, F. Halter. Effect of acute and chronic acid suppression on plasma gastrin release in the rat. Aliment. Pharmacol. 6, 195-206 (1992)

Kromer, W., Synergistic opioid inhibition of colonic Cl- secretion by k-opioid receptor agonism plus µ-opioid receptor antagonism. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 230, 235-237 (1993)

Kromer, W., E. Beubler. Dual opioid modulation of chloride/water secretion in the guinea pig colon in vitro and the rat jejunum in vivo. J. Auton. Pharmacol. 13, 315-321 (1993)

Kromer, W., µ Opioid receptors modulate net chloride secretion in the guinea pig colonic mucosa in a dual fashion. Life Sci. 53, 1061-1068 (1993)

Kromer, W. Gastrointestinal effects of opioids. In: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 104/II, A. Herz (ed.). Springer, Heidelberg 1993, pp 163-190

Kromer, W., B. Heller. Opioids and opioid receptors of the gastrointestinal tract and their function in motility and chloride transport. In: New perspectives in infant nutrition (B. Renner and G. Sawatzki, eds.), Thieme, Stuttgart 1993, pp 138-145.

Kromer, W., Unexpected prosecretory action component of loperamide at µ-opioid receptors in the guinea pig colonic mucosa in vitro. Br. J. Pharmacol. 114, 739-744 (1995)

Kromer, W. Similarities and differences in the properties of substituted benzimidazoles: a comparison between pantoprazole and related compounds. Digestion 56, 443-454 (1995)

Kromer W., N. Kolassa. Protonenpumpenhemmer: Was leisten die Nachzügler? Leber Magen Darm 27 (5/97), 315-316 (1997)

Stoeck M., W. Kromer, V. Gekeler. Induction of IL-15 mRNA and protein in A549 cells by proinflammatory cytokines. Immunobiol. 199, 14-22 (1998)

Kromer W., U. Krüger, R. Huber, M. Hartmann, V.W. Steinijans. Differences in pH-dependent activation rates of substituted benzimidazoles and biological in vitro correlates. Pharmacology 56, 57-70 (1998)

Beil, W., K.-Fr. Sewing, W. Kromer. Basic aspects of selectivity of pantoprazole and its pharmacologic actions. Drugs of today 35/10, 1-12 (1999)

Kromer W., S. Postius, U. Krüger. Antiulcer drugs. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 6th ed., Electronic release, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 1999

Kromer W., S. Horbach, R. Lühmann. The relative efficacies of gastric proton pump inhibitiors: their clinical and pharmacological basis. A review. Pharmacology 59, 57-77 (1999)

Kromer W., S. Postius, R. Riedel. Animal pharmacology of reversible antagonism of the gastric acid pump, compared to standard antisecretory principles. Pharmacology 60, 179-187 (2000)

Kromer, W. The relationship between pH-selectivity, chirality, and efficacy of gastric proton pump inhibitors. Research Trends: Current Topics in Pharmacology 5, 45-69 (2000)

Kromer W., S. Postius, U. Krüger. Anti-ulcer drugs. In: J.L. McGuire, ed., Pharmaceuticals, Wiley-VCH, 2000, pp 713-739.

Kromer W. Relative efficacies of gastric proton pump inhibitors on a milligram basis: Desired and undesired SH-reactions. Impact of chirality. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 36 Suppl. 234, 3-9 (2001)

Palmer, A.M., B. Grobbel, C. Jecke, Ch. Brehm, P.J. Zimmermann, W. Buhr, M.P. Feth, W.-A. Simon, W. Kromer. Synthesis and evaluation of 7H-8,9-Dihydropyranol[2,3-c]imidazol[1,2-a]pyridines as potassium-competitive acid blockers. J. Med. Chem. 50, 6240-6264 (2007)

Palmer, A.M., G. Münch, B. Grobbel, W. Kromer. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of potential metabolites of the potassium-competitive acid blocker BYK 405879. Tetrahedron Letters 50, 3917-3919 (2009)

Palmer, A.M., G. Münch, C. Scheufler, W. Kromer. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of 5-carboxyamide-substituted tetrahydrochromeno[7,8-d]imidazoles. Tetrahedron Letters 50, 3920-3922 (2009)

Palmer, A.M., V. Chiesa, A. Schmid, G. Münch, B. Grobbel, P.J. Zimmermann, Ch. Brehm, W. Buhr, W.-A. Simon, W. Kromer, S. Postius, J. Volz, D. Hess. Tetrahydrochromenoimidazoles as potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CABs): Structure-activity relationship of their antisecretory properties and their affinity toward the hERG channel. J. Med. Chem.  53, 3645-3674 (2010)

Kromer, W. Verirrungen in der Bioethik. Forum Wissenschaft 3, 49-50 (2018)  

Kromer, W. Bewusstsein - ein Mysterium? Forum Wissenschaft 4, 59-62 (2021)

Kromer, W. Is consciousness a mystery? A simplified approach to pinpoint the basic nature of consciousness. J Psychiatry Psychiatric Disord 6, 196-202 (2022). 
This article was published as a preprint, PsyArXiv. April 14 (2021); doi:10.31234/